EU documents

  1. Directive 2013/32/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2013 on common procedures for granting and withdrawing international protection (recast), OJ L 180/60, 29 June 2013.
  2. Directive 2011/95/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 December 2011 on standards for the qualification of third-country nationals or stateless persons as beneficiaries of international protection, for a uniform status for refugees or for persons eligible for subsidiary protection, and for the content of the protection granted (recast), OJ L 339, 20 December 2011, section 4.

UNHCR Documents

  1. UNHCR, Beyond Proof, Credibility Assessment in EU Asylum Systems: Full Report, May 2013.


  1. M.M. v. Minister for Justice, Equality and Law Reform and Attorney-General (Ireland), C-277/11, Court of Justice of the European Union, 22 November 2012.
  2. A., B. And C.  Joined cases C-148/13, C149/13, C-150/13, Court of Justice of the European Union, referred by the Raad van State (Netherlands), 31 May 2013.



  1. C. Grütters, E. Guild and S. de Groot (eds)., ’Assessment of credibility by judges in asylum cases in the EU’ (Oisterwijk: Wolf Legal Publishers, 2013)


  1. I. Staffans, ’Evidence in European Asylum Procedures’ (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2012), ch. 3.3 and 4, pp. 50-106.
  2. R. Thomas, ‘Assessing the Credibility of Asylum Claims: EU and UK Approaches Examined’, European Journal of Migration and Law, vol. 8 (2006), pp. 86–92.
  3. International Association of Refugee Law Judges, ‘Assessment of Credibility in Refugee and Subsidiary Protection claims under the EU Qualification Directive. Judicial criteria and standards’, Haarlem, The Netherlands, May 2013.