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Main Debate

Should the Council of Europe play a greater role in standard setting in the area of asylum in a wider pan-European context?

Main Points

Binding v. non-binding regional instruments

CommitteoMinisterrecommendationv. ParliamentarAssemblresolutions

Establishing harmonization between EU and non-EU states

Treaties

Regional

Core

The Council of Europe Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence, 12 April 2011,E.T.S. 210.

European Social Charter (Revised), 3 May 1996, E.T.S. 163.

European Convention for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, 26 November 1987, E.T.S. 126.

European Agreement on Transfer of Responsibility for Refugees, 16 October 1980, E.T.S. 107.

European Social Charter, 18 October 1961, E.T.S. 035.

European Agreement on the Abolition of Visas for Refugees, 20 April 1959, E.T.S. 031.

European Convention on Extradition, 13 December 1957, E.T.S. 24.

European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and its protocols, 4 November 1950, E.T.S. 005.

Extended

Council of Europe Conventionon Action against Trafficking in Human Beings, 16 May 2005, E.T.S. 197.

Council of Europe Convention on the Prevention of Terrorism, 16 May 2005, E.T.S. 196.

Protocol Amending the European Convention on the Suppression of Terrorism, 15 May 2003, E.T.S. 190.

European Convention on Nationality, 6 November 1997, E.T.S. 166.

Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, 1 February 1995, E.T.S. 157.

European Convention on the Suppression of Terrorism, 27 January 1977,E.T.S. 090.

European Convention on Repatriation of Minors, 28 May 1970, E.T.S. 071.

European Convention on Consular Functions, 11 December 1967, E.T.S. 061.

Protocol to the European Convention on Consular Functions concerning the Protection of Refugees, 11 December 1967, E.T.S. 61A.

Soft Law

Council of Europe: Committee of Ministers

Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe,‘Guidelines on human rights protection in the context of accelerated asylum procedures’, 1 July 2009.

Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe,‘Recommendation R (2006) 6 of the Committee of Ministers to Member States on Internally Displaced Persons’,5 April 2006.

Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, ‘Recommendation R (2005) 6 to Member States on Exclusion from Refugee Status in the Contextof Art. 1F of the Convention Related to the Status of Refugees’, 23 March 2005.

Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, ‘Recommendation R (2004) 14 to Member States on the Movement and Encampment of Travellers in Europe’, 1 December 2004.

Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, ‘Recommendation R (2004) 9 to Member States on the Concept of “Membership in a Particular Social Group” (MPSG) in the Context of 1951 Convention’, 30 June 2004.

Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, ‘RecommendationR (2003) 5 tMembeStateoMeasureoDetentiooAsylum-Seekers’1Apri2003.

Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe‘Recommendation R (200118 to Member States on Subsidiary Protection’, 27 November 2001.

Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, ‘Recommendation R (2000) 9 on Temporary Protection’, 3 May 2000.

Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, ‘Recommendation R (99) 23 on Family Reunion for Refugees and Other Persons in Need of International Protection’, 15 December 1999.

Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, ‘Recommendation R (98) 13 on the Right of Rejected Asylum Seekers to an Effective Remedy against Decisionson Expulsion in the Context of Art.13 of the European Convention on Human Rights’, 18 September 1998.

Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, ‘Recommendation R (97) 22 Containing Guidelines on the Application of the Safe Third Country Concept’, 25 November 1997.

Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, ‘Recommendation No. R (94) 5 on Guidelines to Inspire Practices of the Member States of the Council of Europe Concerning the Arrival of Asylum-Seekers at European Airports’, 21 June 1994.

Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, ‘Recommendation R (84) 21 on the Acquisition by Refugees of the Nationality of the Host Country’, 14 November 1984.

Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, ‘Recommendation R (84) 1 on the Protection of Persons Satisfying the Criteria in the Geneva Convention Who Are Not Formally Recognised as Refugees’, 25 January 1984.

Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, ‘Recommendation R (81) 16 on the Harmonisation of National Procedures Relating to Asylum’, 5 November 1981.

Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, ‘Declarationon Territorial Asylum’, 18 November 1977.

Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, ‘Recommendation 70 (2) (1970) on the Acquisition by Refugees of the Nationality of Their Country of Residence’, 26 January 1970.

Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, ‘Resolution 14 (1967) on Asylum to Persons in Danger of Persecution’, 29 June 1967.

Soft Law

Council of Europe: Parliamentary Assembly

Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, ‘Resolution 1768 (2010) Roma Asylum-Seekers in Europe’, 12 November 2010.

Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, ‘Resolution 1765 (2010) on Gender-Related Claims for Asylum’, 8 October 2010.

Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, ‘Recommendation 1917 (2010) Migrants and Refugees: A Continuing Challenge for the Council of Europe’, 30 April 2010.

Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, ‘Recommendation 1901 (2010): Solving Property Issues of Refugees and Displaced Persons’, 28 January 2010.

Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe Resolution 1707 (2010) on Detention of Asylum-Seekers and Irregular Migrants in Europe’, 28 January 2010.

Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, ‘Recommendation 1889 (2009) on Improving the Quality and Consistency of Asylum Decisions in the Council of Europe Member States’, 20 November 2009.

Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, ‘Resolution 1569 (2007) on Assessment of Transit and Processing Centres as a Response to Mixed Flows of Migrants and Asylum-Seekers’, 1 October 2007.

Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, ‘Resolution 1509 (2006) Human Rights of Irregular Migrants’, 27 June 2006.

Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, ‘Recommendation 1703 (2005) on Protection and Assistance for Separated Children Seeking Asylum’, 28 April 2005.

Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe ‘Resolution 1437 (2005) “Migration and Integration : a Challenge and an Opportunity for Europe”’, 27 April 2005.

ParliamentarAssemblothCouncioEurope‘Recommendatio165(2004) oEducatiooRefugeeanInternallDisplacePersons’,March 2004.

Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, ‘Recommendation 1644 (2004) on Terrorism’, 29 January 2004.

Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, ‘Recommendation 1645 (2004) on Access to Assistance and Protection of Asylum-Seekers at European Seaports and Coastal Areas’, 29 January 2004.

Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe ‘Recommendation 1624 (2003) on Common Policy on Migration and Asylum’, 30 September 2003.

Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe‘Recommendatio155(2002) oCombatinTerrorisanRespecfoHumaRights’, 2Januar2002.

Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe‘Recommendatio150(2001) oHealtConditionoMigrantanRefugeeiEurope’, 1March 2001.

Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe‘Recommendatio147(2000) oArrivaoAsylum-seekeraEuropeaAirports’, 2Septembe2000.

Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, ‘Recommendation 1470 (2000) on Situation of Gays and Lesbians and Their Partners in Respect of Asylum and Immigration’, 30 June 2000.

Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe ‘Recommendation 1440 (2000) on Restrictions on Asylum in the Member States of the Council of Europe and the EU’, 25 January 2000.

Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, ‘Recommendation 1374 (1998) on Situation of Refugee Women in Europe’, 26 May 1998.

Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe,‘Recommendation 1327 (1997) on the Protection and Reinforcement of the Human Rights of Refugees and Asylum-seekers in Europe’, 24 April 1997.

Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, ‘Recommendation 1236 (1994) on the Right of Territorial Asylum’, 12 April 1994. 

Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, ‘Recommendation 773 (1976) on De Facto Refugees’, 26 January 1976.

Soft Law

Commissioner for Human Rights

Commissioner for Human Rights, ‘Human Rights Challenges of Migration in Europe’ 17–18 February 2011.

Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Preliminary Report CommDH (05) 4 on the Human Rights Situation of the Roma, Sinti and Travellers in Europe’, 4 May 2005.

Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Recommendation CommDH (04) 1 on Combating Trafficking of Children in Europe’, 19 January 2004.

Commissioner for Human Rights ‘Recommendation CommDH (01) 1 Concerning the Rights of Aliens Wishing to Enter a Council of Europe Member State and the Enforcement of Expulsion Orders’, 19 September 2001.

Readings

Core

G.Tessenyi, ‘Recommendations of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe Concerning Asylum, Refugees and Other Persons’, in Legal Status of Refugees and Asylum-Seekers and the European Convention on Human Rights (Chisinau, 2001), pp. 210–220.

Editor’s Note

The Committee of Ministers is empowered to make recommendations to Member States on matters for which the Committee has agreed a ‘common policy’. Recommendations of the Parliamentary Assembly contain proposals addressed to the Committee of Ministers, the implementation of which is the competence of national governments.

Resolutions of the Parliamentary Assembly embody decisions on policy issues and have no binding effect.

 VI.1.1 Legal and Policy Framework for Refugee ProtectionVI.1.1 Legal and Policy Framework for Refugee Protection