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Section I
Introduction to International Refugee Law: Background and Context
I.1 History of Population Movements: Migrants, Immigrants, Internally Displaced Persons and Refugees
I.1.1 The Concepts
I.1.2 The Theories
I.1.3 The Actual Movements
I.2 The Legal and Institutional Framework for Refugee Protection
I.2.1 The Evolution of the International Refugee Regime
I.2.2 The Universal Standard: The 1951 Geneva Convention
Refugee Definition and the Statute of the UNHCR
I.2.2.1 Prior Definitions: Group Specific:Geographically and Temporarily Limited
I.2.2.2 1951 Geneva Convention: Universal Applicability: Optional Geographical and Temporal Limits
I.2.2.3 Expansion by the 1967 Protocol
I.2.3 Contemporary Alternative Refugee Definitions
I.2.3.1 Africa
I.2.3.2 Latin America
I.2.3.3 Europe
I.3 UNHCR and Other Actors Relevant to International Asylum Law
I.3.1 UNHCR
I.3.2 Other Agencies and Their Interaction

Section II
International Framework for Refugee Protection
II.1 Universal Principles and Concepts of Refugee Protection
II.1.1 Non-refoulement
II.1.2 Asylum
II.1.3 Non-discrimination
II.1.4 Family Unity
II.1.5 Durable Solutions
II.1.6 Burden Sharing and International Cooperation
II.2 The 1951 Geneva Convention
II.2.1 Criteria for Granting Refugee Protection
II.2.1.1 Alienage
II.2.1.1.1 Outside the Country of Nationality
II.2.1.1.2 Owing to Fear Is Unable or Unwilling to Avail Self of Protection of Country of Nationality
II.2.1.1.3 Dual or Multiple Nationality
II.2.1.1.4 Statelessness
II.2.1.2 Well-founded Fear
II.2.1.3 Persecution
II.2.1.3.1 Acts of Persecution
II.2.1.3.2 Agents of Persecution
II.2.1.4 Five Grounds: Race, Religion, Nationality, Social Group, Political Opinion
II.2.1.4.1 Multiple Grounds and General Issues
II.2.1.4.2 Race
II.2.1.4.3 Religion
II.2.1.4.4 Nationality
II.2.1.4.5 Particular Social Group
II.2.1.4.6 Political Opinion
II.2.1.5 Internal Protection Alternative
II.2.1.6 Exclusion from Convention Refugee Status
II.2.1.7 Cessation of Refugee Status
II.2.1.7.1 Cessation Grounds
II.2.1.7.2 Procedures
II.2.2 Access to Territory
II.2.2.1 Visa Requirements
II.2.2.2 Carrier Sanctions
II.2.2.3 Extraterritorial Immigration Control
II.2.2.4 Interceptions and Rescue at Sea
II.2.3 Access to Procedures
II.2.3.1 Protection Elsewhere (First Country of Asylum and Safe Third Country)
II.2.4 Reception Conditions
II.2.5 Procedures for Determining Refugee Status
II.2.5.1 Basic Procedural Requirements
II.2.5.2 Evidentiary Issues
II.2.5.2.1 Standards of Proof
II.2.5.2.2 Credibility
II.2.5.2.3 Factors Affecting Evidentiary Assessment
II.2.5.2.3.1 Post Traumatic Stress
II.2.5.2.3.2 Interviewing Vulnerable Populations
II.2.5.2.3.2.1 Children
II.2.5.2.3.2.2 Women
II.2.6 Content of Refugee Status
II.2.7 Detention
II.3 Other Forms of International Protection
II.3.1 Temporary Protection
II.3.2 Complementary (Subsidiary) Protection
II.3.3 Universal Human Rights Instruments Relevant to Protection
II.3.3.1 Universal Declaration of Human Rights
II.3.3.2 The UN International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
II.3.3.3 The UN Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
II.3.3.4 The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child
II.3.3.5 The Geneva Conventions and Protocols: Minimum Standards in Times of War
II.4 Internally Displaced Persons

Section III
African Framework for Refugee Protection
III.1 Overview of African Regional Legal Instruments for Refugee Protection
III.2 The OAU Refugee Convention
III.2.1 Extended Grounds of Persecution: ‘External Aggression, Occupation, Foreign Domination or Events Seriously Disturbing Public Order'
III.2.2 Family Unity
III.3 Sub-regional Legal Framework for the Protection of Refugees
III.3.1 East Africa
III.3.1. Kenya
III.3.1.2 Uganda
III.3.1.3 Tanzania
III.4 Protection Challenges in Africa
III.4.1 Exclusion Clause
III.4.2 The Interface between Refugee Law and Immigration Law
III.4.3 Urban Refugees versus Camp Refugees
III.4.4 Resettlement
III.4.5 The Plight of IDPs
III.4.6 Unaccompanied Minors
III.4.7 Governance and Globalization
III.4.8 The Search for Solutions to the Refugee Problem in Africa
III.4.9 Protection During Mass Repatriation Programmes

Section IV
Asian Framework for Refugee Protection
IV.1 Protection Challenges in Asia
IV.2 States Party to the 1951 Refugee Convention
IV.2.1 Cambodia
IV.2.2 China
IV.2.3 Japan
IV.2.4 Philippines
IV.2.5 South Korea
IV.3 States Not Party to the 1951 Refugee Convention
IV.3.1 Bangladesh
IV.3.2 India
IV.3.3 Nepal
IV.3.4 Pakistan
IV.3.5Thailand

Section V
European Framework for Refugee Protection
V.1 The Council of Europe
V.1.1 Legal and Policy Framework for Refugee Protection
V.1.2 The European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms
V.2 The European Union
V.2.1 Towards a Common European Asylum System (CEAS)
V.2.1.1 Evolution of the CEAS
V.2.1.2 Ongoing Development of the CEAS
V.2.2 Criteria for Granting Protection
V.2.2.1 Harmonization of the 1951 Geneva Convention Refugee Definition
V.2.2.2 Subsidiary Protection
V.2.2.3 Temporary Protection
V.2.3 Access to Territory and Access to Procedures
V.2.3.1 The EU's External and Internal Borders
V.2.3.2 Interception and Rescue at Sea
V.2.3.3 Visas
V.2.3.4 Carrier Sanctions
V.2.3.5 Extraterritorial Immigration Control and Extraterritorial Processing
V.2.3.6 Biometrics and Databases
V.2.4 Procedures for Granting Protection
V.2.4.1 Responsibility: The Dublin System
V.2.4.2 Minimum Standards for Reception Conditions
V.2.4.3 Minimum Standards for Normal Procedures
V.2.4.4 Minimum Standards for Specific Procedures
V.2.4.4.1 Accelerated and Manifestly Unfounded Procedures
V.2.4.4.2 Safe Country of Origin
V.2.4.4.3 Safe Third Country
V.2.4.5 Other Aspects of Decision-making
V.2.4.5.1 Evidentiary Issues
V.2.4.5.2 Persons with Special Needs
V.2.4.6 Appeals
V.2.5 Removal and Detention
V.2.5.1 Detention
V.2.5.2 Return Policies
V.2.5.3 Readmission Agreements

Section VI
Framework for Refugee Protection in the Americas
VI.1 Political Asylum, Diplomatic Asylum and Refugee Status
VI.2 Refugee Protection in the Framework of the Inter-American Human Rights System
VI.2.1 Human Rights Instruments
VI.2.1.1 The Non-refoulement Principle and the Rights of Refugees
VI.2.1.2 Protection against Extradition
VI.2.1.3 Other Norms
VI.2.2 Specific Instruments of Refugee Protection
VI.2.2.1 Regional Definition and Proposals to Improve Protection
VI.2.2.2 Durable Solutions in the Regional Framework
VI.3 Application of the 1951 Geneva Convention through the Regional Mechanisms and National Legislations
VI.4 Protection of Internally Displaced Persons, with Special Attention to the Case of Colombia
VI.5 The North American Regional Materials